Amazing Facts about Chromosomes

If you are curious about tiny structures present within the cell, you have to check amazing facts about chromosomes. Chromosomes are a thread like structures that are present within the cell. It comprises cell’s genetic material. Each chromosome comprehends of a single molecule of DNA and a Protein. Every human being consists of unique set of chromosomes. Now know more on chromosomes through distinct facts that are stated below.

  • Chromosomes Determine Whether You are Female or Male

There are two sex-determining chromosomes in humans and other mammals : X chromosomes and Y-Chromosomes. Females have two X chromosomes and Males have one Y chromosome. Females inherit one X chromosomes from their father and other from their mother.

  • Sex Chromosomes are not present in all Organisms

Organisms such as bees and ants do not have sex chromosomes. In these organisms, sex is determined through fertilisation. Unfertilized eggs develop into females whereas fertilised eggs develop into males.

  • During Mitosis Cells do not repair damaged chromosomes

During cell division, DNA repair process is blocked by the cell. This is because a dividing cell fails to differentiate between a telomere and a damaged DNA. It may lead to telomere fusion if DNA is repaired during mitosis.

  • There are Two Types of Chromosome Mutations

Chromosomes Mutation can be classified into two categories, mutations that cause changes in chromosome numbers and mutation that causes changes in the structure of chromosomes. Changes in chromosome numbers may cause individual to have an abnormal number of chromosomes. This type of mutation may take place during the process of mitosis. Structural changes in chromosomes may lead to gene inversions, gene deletions and gene duplications.

  • Chromosomes Telomere are connected to Cancer and Ageing

A telomere is located at the end of the chromosomes. They are the areas of DNA. During cell replication, telomere acts as protective caps that stabilize DNA. Over time, telomere can become short and wear down. The cell can no longer be divided, if telomere becomes too short. Telomere shortening is related to ageing process as it can trigger programmed death cell. It is also linked with cancer cell development.

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About Author: Bhavishya.S is presently working as a content writer at Byju’s. She loves to pen down her imagination through words. Since when she started her career she has written articles and blogs. If you wish to discuss any related concepts or ideas feel free to drop an email at bhavishya.s@byjus.com